BMW 3 Series E30
since 1983-1994 release
Repair and operation of the car
+ 1. Maintenance instruction
+ 2. Maintenance
+ 3. Engine
+ 4. Cooling system
+ 5. Heating and ventilation
+ 6. Fuel system
+ 7. Exhaust system
+ 8. Transmissions
+ 9. Coupling
+ 10. Brake system
+ 11. Running gear
+ 12. Body
+ 13. Electric equipment
- 14. Useful tips
14.2. The changed numbers
14.3. Purchase of the old car or mysterious set of figures and letters
14.4. Durability of the car
14.5. About parallelism of bridges of the car and trailer
14.6. Preparation of the car for winter
14.7. Rule 35
14.8. Choice of the used car
14.9. Engine oils
14:10. What needs to be known, changing oil
14:11. Emergence in deposit oil
14:12. Whether it is possible to mix import oils?
14:13. "Eats" much, but quietly goes
14:14. It is rather live, than is dead …
14:15. It is not got - useful tips
14:16. Visit to car service
14:17. A gear belt for the gas distribution mechanism drive
14:18. Wear of pistons
14:20. Bearings of engines
14:21. Pollution of the engine
14:22. As the conditioner works and what to do if it failed
14:23. Conditioner: not only "pluses", but also "minuses"
14:24. Rules of service of the conditioner
14:25. Antifreeze you should not disturb with antifreeze …
14:26. What should be known upon purchase of the air filter
14:27. Engine overheat
14:28. What should be known to the owner of the car with the injector engine
14:30. Possible malfunctions of the rechargeable battery
14:31. What to do with the failed generator
14:32. The belt is guilty, and we blame the generator
14:34. Rub in one - or how to save the catalyst
14:36. Features of operation of the brake system
14:37. Malfunctions of the brake system
14:38. Brake fluids
14:39. ABS: natural choice
14:41. We update rims
14:42. Scheme of marking of a car tire
14:43. Metal corrosion
14:45. What creaks?
14:47. Safety cushion: troubles or pleasures?
14:48. We fit well?
14:49. Anticreeping "immunodeficiency"
14:50. Why headlights grow dull
14:52. About the correct adjustment of headlights
14:53. Electric motor
14:54. From change of the places "composed" nothing changes?
What is the accumulator?
The accumulator is a device for storage of energy in a chemical form which can be used as electricity.
The accumulator works thanks to the fact that two various metals, being in acid solution, produce electricity.
Main indicators of accumulators
Some important facts about accumulators which will help you are given below and it is correct to your buyers to choose the accumulator for the car.
Akkmulyator possesses 100% efficiency at 27 °C. At -18 °C efficiency of the same akkmulyator falls to 40%. Now to start the engine, it is necessary to have more than twice more energy, than it was necessary at 27 °C. Emphasize this important factor to your clients. Indicate the need of big akkmulyator, especially in cold climates.
Starting power (starting amperes) shows ability of the accumulator to start the car in the conditions of very cold weather. It shows the number of amperes which develops the accumulator within 30 seconds at -18 °C without power failure lower than 7,2 volts (the minimum level demanded for reliable start). The this indicator, the more starting power of the accumulator is higher.
Reserve power shows time extent in minutes during which the accumulator provides 25 amperes at 27 °C. This factor represents time during which the accumulator ensures functioning of all auxiliary devices in the car at night and in the conditions of bad weather at the faulty generator of a charge.
Functioning in the conditions of cold weather
In winter conditions at -18 °C and below the accumulator will be badly charged in connection with increase of internal resistance. At short trips in the winter the energy spent by the accumulator for start-up is not compensated. As a result the accumulator works very hard, is constantly discharged and eventually fails.
In summer months after long trips the engine strongly heats up, and often happens that it it is difficult to start anew. Such "hot starts" sometimes demand as much the power how many and at cold weather, or it is more. It especially extends to high-compression engines with large working volume and cars with conditioners. It once again emphasizes importance of a right choice of the accumulator according to the car engine.
How it is correct to choose an akkmulyator?
Probably, at each motorist there comes such moment when to potter further with the old rechargeable battery becomes too troublesome. Especially if outside winter there are also bitter colds. Constant problems with start of the engine, infinite "house" recharge and fear that the showered active weight at the most inappropriate moment will close plates then from some intersection you will be dragged home on the tow. A conclusion arises: the new accumulator is necessary. But what?
All starter rechargeable batteries are divided into three categories: served, or maintainable; low-served; unattended.
The served accumulators for the present meet on sale though about ten years ago they made almost absolute majority. Now they are made by some Russian plants moreover in several countries of the former socialist camp. It is easy to recognize them by the ebonite case and black mastic which is filled in from above. Such accumulator gives the chance to replace the block of plates of one or several cans if between plates there was a short circuit. But the vast majority will not be engaged in it. Besides more expensive ebonite case in production less other, than plastic, and at blow breaks up. Mastic has an essential shortcoming too – over time from dirt and temperature drops it loses the insulating properties why the accumulator begins to be discharged very quickly spontaneously.
The owner of the unattended accumulator is simply deprived of an opportunity something to make with it: on a cover of such battery there are no openings and jellied traffic jams. These are the special accumulators intended for defined (read – ideal) service conditions with soft climate and smoothly running service. They very expensive are also suitable for use not on all cars.
The majority of the automobile accumulators released around the world is low-served. They have no such rigid restrictions in operation and are widely presented at the market, from rather cheap and simple to expensive, qualitative and literally larded by modern technologies.
Let's say you decided to buy the accumulator, but where and what? At first – where. It is the best of all to go to solid firm where to you will quickly pick up what is necessary. Now – what. Let's not advise something concrete, we will make only some recommendations.
The prestige and popularity of some brand of accumulators have crucial importance upon purchase, but it is necessary to consider also some technical moments. Of course, the chemical composition of plates or technology of their production are hardly known to the seller. And whether the buyer needs it? It is better to pay attention to what can be seen most. For example, the packaged plates (each plate is packed into a microporous envelope separator), which prevent short circuit between them owing to fall of active weight and respectively prolong the term of "life" of the accumulator. Such packages are well visible if to open a jellied stopper. Pay attention and to traffic jams. It is known that at accumulator charging water from electrolyte is evaporated and at electrolysis decays on hydrogen and oxygen.
That the accumulator did not explode, in traffic jams do sideways or from above a small opening for an exit of gases. In the simplest (and the cheapest) accumulators do just small opening which can quickly be hammered with dirt. In more expensive traffic jams are made like the valve which is not allowing electrolyte to be splashed out with a cavity for a kontsensation of vapors. It is the best of all if traffic jams have no openings, and in a cover of the battery there is a system of cavities for water condensation, and also the uniform exhaust channel, as in unattended accumulators.
The low-served accumulators are delivered by producers sukhozaryazhenny (as the majority of served) or filled in with electrolyte at the plant. If you buy the accumulator for the future, then it is better to buy sukhozaryazhenny: it has a big period of storage. To bring them to the working condition, it is necessary to fill in electrolyte. The akkmulyator which are filled in at the plant are already ready to work. Electrolyte for them prepares experts from high-quality components and contains much (sometimes more than twenty) the additives interfering sulphation, fall of active weight, etc. It is necessary to tell that the special modifiers which are allegedly containing such additives were available for sale, but they do not cause trust. The filled-in accumulators have one more advantage. Before getting to retail chain stores, they are subjected to special charging with control of parameters on the special equipment. At the same time it is much easier to reveal low-quality batteries.
Probably, the most important what the buyer has to pay attention to, are characteristics of the accumulator. They are three. The first – nomanalny tension, it at all batteries identical, and it is impossible to be mistaken. Upon purchase it is desirable to check the accumulator a load fork. The second – the capacity measured in ampere/hours (A/h) means, roughly speaking, the quantity of the electric power which is kept in the accumulator. Depends on capacity as it is long possible to twist a starter the engine, more precisely – how many it is possible to make attempts to start the engine. The price of the accumulator is almost directly proportional to its capacity. And the third characteristic – starting current (it is measured in amperes. A), i.e. the current given on a starter during start-up. On accumulators it can be specified on four different systems: GOST (on domestic), EN (the standard of Uniform Europe), SAE (the American standard) and DIN. The last, German standard, is closest to our state standard specification and on the majority of the European batteries is put "by default" i.e. when the system of the standard is not specified. The it is more, the quicker and with a bigger force the starter will turn the engine.
It is better if you buy the accumulator with those characteristics which are specified in the maintenance instruction of your car: so it will serve to you longer at the minimum expenses. It is possible to save and buy the accumulator of smaller capacity, but it will serve you less usual term and it is bad to cope with winter start. Having bought the battery even not much more to bigger capacity, you will not win in service life since constant недозаряд the accumulator will lead to sulphation of plates, and will lose in money. It is not necessary to be fond of the raised starting current also: you will burn a starter. Replace oil in the engine better, and problems with start will not be.
Lately the market of the country is overflowed with low-quality goods and fakes. Accumulators are not an exception. There are several signs on which it is possible with a sufficient accuracy to distinguish the original from a fake. The first and, perhaps, main thing: on the accumulator the country manufacturer and the releasing plant have to be surely specified, it is better if with the address. The second – date of production has to be specified that is very important if the accumulator which is filled in. Technical data sheet has to be attached to each battery, and here existence of the instruction is optional. It is connected with what in the West accumulators almost do not sell at retail, they are installed by experts at service stations. The third – the high-quality accumulator is inconceivable without the high-quality case, good traffic jams and smooth output plugs which are quite often greased with technical protective lubricant from oxidation and covered from above with color plastic caps.
The "ampere" loading
The main task of the accumulator is giving of current for start of the engine. The current which is required for a provorachivaniye of the cold engine differs from the car to the car. It depends on the size of a piston stroke and diameter, the number of cylinders, a scrolling ratio an engine / starter, resistance of a chain, temperature, viscosity of oil of the engine and loading of auxiliary devices. The four-cylinder engine can demand the same size of current of start as well as eight-cylinder with large working volume. When the original accumulator equipment approaches the car, all these factors are considered.
The second purpose of the akkmulyatorny battery is completion of load requirements of the car when they exceed a possibility of charging system on supply with energy. The charging system maintains electric loading under normal conditions of the movement. Nevertheless, if the engine is idling, the battery can fill a part of energy for auxiliary devices. It takes place when driving on the city at constant stops and renewal of the movement at normal loading of auxiliary devices. The rechargeable battery has to fill electric loading of the car at refusal of charging system.
When replacing the automobile accumulator apply equivalent to the original rechargeable battery. Use the rechargeable battery of bigger capacity if the bigger factor of reliability is necessary.
The third purpose of the rechargeable battery is action as the voltage stabilizer in charging system. From time to time in electric system very high transitional tension is developed. It can take place at short circuit or disconnection of a chain, etc. The rechargeable battery partially absorbs and considerably smoothes this peak tension and protects semiconductor components from failure.
Protect the accumulator!
The more cold on the street – the more problems at drivers. One of main – as on a frost to start the engine. And here first of all the accumulator makes itself felt. On it in a frost the greatest loading falls: start of the engine demands much more great efforts. That the starter turned the crankshaft of the cold engine, the rechargeable battery needs to give much more energy. At the same time do not forget that maintenance of the accumulator happens not instantly, and after a while: the electrolyte which thickened on cold slowly gets in plates. For this reason the repeated attempt of start of the engine is recommended to make only in a few minutes. Besides on a frost the battery during the work of a starter is discharged very quickly.
Some drivers, trying to launch the "frozen" engine, continuously twist a starter over and over again. As a result of this violence the accumulator very quickly "sdykhat" – finally and irrevocably: battery plates, without maintaining excessive loadings, begin to warp and be showered.
Probably, needless to say about need of regular care of the accumulator, about what is necessary at least once a week to check electrolyte level in banks and if necessary to add the distilled water. If the accumulator unattended – cares is less. But all the same the attention should be paid – periodically it is necessary to check a tension of a driving belt, and at the first signs of power deceleration the accumulator needs to be recharged.
And now it will be a question of how quicker and least without serious consequences for the accumulator to launch the engine on a frost.
At first – obvious. In due time replace oil with winter. Better – on import because ours (including packed up) quite often has unpleasant feature to turn on a frost into kissel or at all to freeze. How such oil will grease engine details, to the accumulator with it will have very a rough time and days it will be considered.
The second – candles. It is one winter better to establish new. But it is the theory, and in practice often such factors as "economy" or lack of it in due time near at hand come into force. Because while the engine is launched normally, many do not even remember that in the engine there are candles... If candles nevertheless old – establish in them a necessary gap which constantly increases because of an obgoraniye of electrodes. It is better to make it in good time, otherwise it is necessary to be picked when it is necessary to go. As a last resort, if the engine is not launched, the gap can be established less recommended, but in this case electrodes will burn even quicker.
In hard frosts before including a starter, "warm" the accumulator – turn on driving beam for a couple of minutes. Also do not try to start the engine at once. At first several short inclusions of a starter drive pistons in cylinders slightly to disperse the thickened oil. And after it try to start it. If the engine was not started from the first attempt, do not switch off at once a starter. The most optimum mode of launch of the engine – a series of 10-15 second attempts with three-minute breaks.
Typical loadings of the passenger car (in amperes)